International Research Journal of Rongo University http://journals.rongovarsity.ac.ke/index.php/IJORU <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>The International Journal of Rongo University (IJORU): Your Premier Source for Scholarly Excellence</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Welcome to The International Journal of Rongo University (IJORU), your biannual, peer-reviewed, and open-access destination for the publication of exceptional research across various disciplines. 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Explore IJORU and become a part of the global academic community. Submit your manuscript today.</p> Rongo University en-US International Research Journal of Rongo University STAKEHOLDERS’ ENGAGEMENT MAKING A DIFFERENCE IN MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURAL PROJECTS, IN URIRI SUB-COUNTY, MIGORI COUNTY, KENYA http://journals.rongovarsity.ac.ke/index.php/IJORU/article/view/16 <p><em>Stakeholders’ involvement in monitoring and evaluation (M&amp;E) is critical towards completion of infrastructural projects (IPs) in public secondary schools. They influence decision making about improving, re-orienting or discontinuing evaluation interventions. Hence, the need to focus on stakeholders’ engagement as a strategy of making a difference in monitoring and evaluation of secondary school IPs in public secondary schools in Uriri Sub-County. Data was collected through census from 172 respondents consisting of principals, chairpersons to the Boards of Management, chairpersons of school infrastructure committees and deputy principals using questionnaires, while interview guide was administered to 3 purposively selected key informants comprising Sub-County Public Works Officer, Sub-County Director of Education and Sub County Quality Assurance and Standards Officer. The study found that there was high influence of leadership stakeholder’s engagement towards completion of IPs in the study area. The study concludes that M&amp;E leadership stakeholder engagement has statistically significant and weak positive correlation towards completion of IPs. The study recommends that the government should enforce policy framework for stakeholder engagement in public secondary schools</em></p> Jim Odhiambo Ongukah Alfred Shem Otara Eliud Oure Oyoo Copyright (c) 2023 International Research Journal of Rongo University 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 1 18 ASSESSING EFFECT OF LAND TENURE SYSTEMS ON MAASAI LIVELIHOOD IN A WILDLIFE DISPERSAL AREA NAROK COUNTY, KENYA http://journals.rongovarsity.ac.ke/index.php/IJORU/article/view/35 <p><em>The pastoral Maasai Indigenous Peoples (IP) are shifting to a private land tenure in community group ranches to improve livelihood outcomes. A study sought to establish linkage(s) between </em><em>Maasai (IP) land tenure systems and livelihood outcomes in the Masai Mara wildlife dispersal area. A total of 404 questionnaires were administered to the study respondents in; Ololulunga, Mara and Osupuko study sites. The study hypothesized that there is no significant linkage between the land tenure system and Maasai IP livelihood outcomes in the study area. </em><em>Respondents were randomly selected using cluster random sampling from 3 outer group ranches</em><em> in Ololulunga, Mara and Osupuko wards.</em> <em>Spearmans’ rank correlation co-efficient analysis shows that; a positive correlation in the model of agro-pastoralism and casual off-farm income sources rank high (r=0.814)</em><em>. Similarly, farming and c</em><em>asual-off farms also rank negatively high (r= - 0.895). Change in the number of livestock was strongly related to access to water sources. Chi-test of independence was further used to test the association of land tenure system, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes.</em> <em>The study established that land tenure affects livelihood strategies and outcomes. As an example; private land tenure is expanding agriculture activities and, impedes livestock herding. In conclusion; land tenure is significant (p&lt;0.05) linked to livelihood outcomes. </em><em>Private land tenure farming’s income generation strategies hinder human-wildlife connections</em><em>. This study recommends households’ equitable access to selected livelihood sources regardless of land tenure regimes. </em><em>Further studies on the impacts of natural resource tenures on livelihood outcomes is recommended</em><em>.</em></p> Jane Nyandika John Kioko Musingi James Moronge Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 19 37 GENDER AND ADVERTISING IN KENYAN PRINT NEWSPAPER: A STUDY OF THE DAILY NATION NEWSPAPER http://journals.rongovarsity.ac.ke/index.php/IJORU/article/view/38 <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%; margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><em><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Apple Garamond';">Beyond promoting products and services, advertisements possess the capacity to influence perceptions, convictions, and attitudes. Advertisements possess the potential to reflect or shape societal norms, thus portraying various groups in manners that either empower or diminish them. This study thus sought to establish portrayal of females and males in Kenyan print newspapers. The study established that in Kenyan print newspaper advertising, gender roles are depicted in an empowering manner, effectively challenging established gender stereotypes. </span><span lang="EN-US">Through a case study and content analysis of a census of advertisements in the Nation Newspaper between January and April 2023.</span></em><em><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Apple Garamond';">The study ascertained that the gender ratio in advertisements is nearly balanced, albeit slightly favoring males. Additionally, a notable underrepresentation of children and the elderly is evident within these advertisements, suggesting discriminatory tendencies. The advertisements embodied the phenomenon of femvertising, whereby females not only endorse food and household items, but also technology, insurance companies, and financial institutions as authoritative figures and consumers. In contrast, a larger proportion of males are depicted as product authorities. The concept of dadvertising emerges as males are portrayed nurturing their children's education within advertisements for insurance products. Traditional female roles are perpetuated through exclusive female representation in advertisements for food, clothing, and household products. While the prevalence of objectifying a female body is limited to a singular instance, this study recommends complete eradication of such objectification due to its violation of female dignity. It is further suggested to advertisers and newspaper editors that both genders should partake in the promotion of food and household products so as to actively challenge the prevailing gender stereotypes. A call is also made for an equitable representation of males, females in advertisements, to accurately mirror the authentic composition of society.</span></em></p> Millicent Awuor Otieno Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 38 47 EFFECT OF WASTE DUMP SITE ON GROUND WATER QUALITY IN HURUMA ESTATE, ELDORET, KENYA http://journals.rongovarsity.ac.ke/index.php/IJORU/article/view/50 <p><em>Water pollution has been associated with open waste dumping across the globe. This study work gives the effect of open waste dump on groundwater quality at Huruma, Eldoret Town, Kenya.&nbsp; Ground water and leachate samples from the open waste dump site were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics. All the parameters were determined based on the American Standard Methods for Examination of water and wastewater. From the results obtained, it was found that the mean values of TDS, DO, SO4+, pH, COD and BOD are 17.73 mg/L, 5.94 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L, 6.54, 13.62 mg/L, and 6.07 mg/L respectively. For leachate samples, mean values for&nbsp; TDS, SO4+, pH, COD and BOD&nbsp; are 89.25 mg/L, 0.36 mg/L, 7.63, 24.56 mg/L, and 13.83 mg/L respectively. Most of the parameters fall within WHO drinking water standards (except pH, COD and BOD). Open waste handling, controlling and monitoring techniques must gear towards achieving quality environmental condition for many to live in.&nbsp; This will go a long way to protecting natural resources such as water that are degraded by these open wastes. </em></p> Francis Ongachi Olal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 48 55