ASSESSING EFFECT OF LAND TENURE SYSTEMS ON MAASAI LIVELIHOOD IN A WILDLIFE DISPERSAL AREA NAROK COUNTY, KENYA
Keywords:Maasai indigenous people, private land, community land, wildlife dispersal area, livelihood outcomes, land tenure, access
The pastoral Maasai Indigenous Peoples (IP) are shifting to a private land tenure in community group ranches to improve livelihood outcomes. A study sought to establish linkage(s) between Maasai (IP) land tenure systems and livelihood outcomes in the Masai Mara wildlife dispersal area. A total of 404 questionnaires were administered to the study respondents in; Ololulunga, Mara and Osupuko study sites. The study hypothesized that there is no significant linkage between the land tenure system and Maasai IP livelihood outcomes in the study area. Respondents were randomly selected using cluster random sampling from 3 outer group ranches in Ololulunga, Mara and Osupuko wards. Spearmans’ rank correlation co-efficient analysis shows that; a positive correlation in the model of agro-pastoralism and casual off-farm income sources rank high (r=0.814). Similarly, farming and casual-off farms also rank negatively high (r= - 0.895). Change in the number of livestock was strongly related to access to water sources. Chi-test of independence was further used to test the association of land tenure system, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes. The study established that land tenure affects livelihood strategies and outcomes. As an example; private land tenure is expanding agriculture activities and, impedes livestock herding. In conclusion; land tenure is significant (p<0.05) linked to livelihood outcomes. Private land tenure farming’s income generation strategies hinder human-wildlife connections. This study recommends households’ equitable access to selected livelihood sources regardless of land tenure regimes. Further studies on the impacts of natural resource tenures on livelihood outcomes is recommended.